Reactions at the cathode surface


Cathodic reduction

The cathodic reduction reaction results in an excess of hydroxide ions in the boundary layer near the cathode surface. In the absence of buffer the pH rises. The high pH conditions (>10) only prevail near the cathode while the bulk of the water remains at the feed pH. The alkaline environment induces the precipitation of the Calcium and Magnesium hardness in the form of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 according to…


The intelligent controller maintains the cell potential required to drive these non-spontaneous reduction reactions.

Reactions at the anode surface

Anodic oxidation
Acidic catalyzation

A series of oxidation reactions occur at the anode resulting in the formation of gases and biocides, including chlorine and hydrogen peroxide.